Copper is an essential element in the human body. About 95% of copper is found in serum as part of ceruloplasmin. Copper is needed by all tissues but is present in highest levels in the liver, where it contributes to energy and detoxification mechanisms. The element is also required to absorb, utilize, and synthesize hemoglobin, maintain the integrity of the outer covering of nerves (myelin), metabolize vitamin C, and oxidize fatty acids. Both excess and deficiency of copper can result in problems such as bone/joint and connective tissue disturbances, cardiovascular degeneration, abnormal electrocardiogram, accelerated aging, depigmentation and dermatitis, anemia, and neurologic impairments. Proper balance of copper with zinc (and other trace elements) is necessary for good health.